The Golden Toad, Incilius periglenes, is listed as Extinct on The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™. This species was known only from the Reserva Biológica Monteverde, Costa Rica, at elevations of 1,500 to 1,620 m above sea-level. Formerly common in its tiny range, no specimen has been seen since 1989 when a single male was found. Extensive searches since this time have failed to produce any more records.
The reason for the sudden disappearance of the Golden Toad has been much debated. It lived in cloud and elfin forest and its habitat remains in excellent condition. Climate change and pollution have both been considered as possible causes of its decline, but the most likely explanation is now considered to be the fungal disease, chytridiomycosis, which appears to have swept southwards through Central America in the 1980s.
The story of the Golden Toad is not unique, as amphibians continue to decline at an alarming rate worldwide. It is likely due to a combination of causes. This range of this species was protected by the Reserva Biológica Monteverd, and it was listed on CITES Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species which makes it illegal to trade in this species internationally.