The Javan Rhinoceros, Rhinoceros sondaicus, is listed as ‘Critically Endangered’ on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. One of the rarest large mammals in the world, it is found only in Indonesia’s Ujung Kulon National Park, with the last Javan Rhino in Vietnam believed to have been poached in 2010.
The remaining Javan Rhino population is estimated at 35-44 individuals, based largely on the results of video camera-trap surveys. The species once ranged from the foothills of the Himalayas to Java and Sumatra, but has been extirpated throughout this distribution due to the loss of tropical forest habitat and to hunting for horn and other body parts, which are used in traditional Asian medicine. Its horn is considered the most precious of all rhino species.
Commercial trade of Javan Rhino is illegal under CITES Appendix 1 and there are none in captivity. Rhino Protection Units safeguard the last population in Ujung Kulon National Park, where the Javan Rhino Study and Conservation Area was recently established. This area is intended to increase the park’s carrying capacity for Javan Rhinos and eventually allow for translocations to a second protectable site within the species’ former range.