The Pygmy Raccoon, Procyon pygmaeus, is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™. The smallest of the raccoon species, the Pygmy Raccoon is endemic to Cozumel Island, off the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico.
Introduced species represent one of the principal threats to the Pygmy Raccoon, and carnivores such as domestic dogs and cats threaten this species directly through predation and competition, and can also transmit diseases. Another introduced predator, the Boa Constrictor, Boa constrictor, is also well established on Cozumel Island. Additionally, rapid tourist development threatens this species, especially as its preferred mangrove habitat coincides with the coastal areas where most development is taking place.
The Pygmy Raccoon is listed as endangered on the Mexican List of Threatened Species, although it is not legally protected and there are no protected areas on Cozumel Island. Proposed conservation measures include protecting areas inhabited by this species, establishing captive breeding programmes, and controlling introduced species.